Ion concentration can change significantly in a titration, which changes the conductivity. We shall apply the Gran treatment to the potentiometric titration of a weak base bicarbonate with strong acids. At low concentration of analyte or insufficiently large equilibrium constant, the degree of incompleteness of the reaction is highest around the equivalence point why?
An acid—base indicator e. Examples of ambient light "noise" are sunlight, light from florescent or incandescent sources modulating at hertzshadows cast by passersby, etc. In this mode a series of titrations is performed in a consecutive manner. The overall potential across the cell, Vc-g, is mainly determined by the potential drop iRc-g.
The increase in the rate of the chemical reaction is of importance not only with respect to the counter electrode, but also for the completion of the titration process in reasonable time.
An experimental setup for potentiometric titration using a peristaltic pump is shown on Fig. It is recommended to perform the calibration as near as possible to the time of the analysis. The initial volume increment is also stored in memory during an iteration. The cell shown in Fig.
This study can justify the reduction of unnecessary sample mixing to save even more time without losing accuracy.